Road freight levels to be cut by 10% under London mayor Sadiq Khan’s strategy

London mayor Sadiq Khan has revealed plans to reduce road freight levels by 10% in the next decade as part of his Transport Strategy for the city.

Released this week (21 June), the strategy is under consultation until 2 October and covers a range of areas from public transport, missions, congestion and street design to housing.

It also puts green public transport, walking, and cycling at the heart of its vision, describing London’s streets as too congested and dangerous at present.

“London most become a city where walking, cycling and green public transport become the most appealing choice,”Khan said in the foreword.

While the document acknowledges the effect and necessity of reducing car use in the capital, consistent with initiatives such as the forthcoming Direct Vision Standard it singles out unacceptable road danger caused by the “dominance of large, heavy, potentially dangerous vehicles”.

While acknowledging the importance of road freight, and even stating that reductions in congestion could improve the transport of “essential freight”, hauliers will face further curbs.

Despite the city being forecast to increase from 8.7 million people to 10.5 million in the next few decades, Khan wants a 10% reduction in freight traffic – truck and van – in central London during the morning peak by 2026 (based on the current volume).

By 2020 he also wants a 5% reduction in construction traffic within the capital too, largely by either retiming servicing activity, avoiding journeys all together, and through the use of more consolidation centres around outer London.

These, coupled with ‘micro-distribution’ centres in inner and central London where deliveries are made with low or zero emission vehicles or cargo bikes – as well as more use of river and rail – are seen as key to achieving this reduction.

“The success of London’s transport system in the future relies on the city becoming a place where people choose to walk and cycle,” said Khan.

The FTA described the target of a 10% reduction in freight traffic as unrealistic, given the needs of London’s growing population.

Its head of policy for London Natalie Chapman added that the mayor’s agenda on demanding HGVs change shape to increase direct vision – a change which may cost load space, thus requiring more vehicles on London’s roads – would also make this a hard goal to reach.

“It costs so much to deliver into London that the road freight industry is already highly load efficient.

“There may be some benefits from further consolidation we can gain, but these will be outweighed by the needs of London’s larger population. The real gains in traffic management will come from private car use – if car users can be enabled or encouraged to switch to public transport, cycling or walking then London’s transport network could become exponentially more efficient,” said Chapman.

The mayor has also outlined an ambition for a zero-emission zone in central London by 2025, ahead of the ULEZ coming into force from 2019.


  • Expansion of cycle hire scheme
  • Commitment to comprehensive cycle routes
  • Reduction in general London road traffic of 10% to 15% by 2041
  • Greater use of off-peak deliveries
  • The Direct Vision Standard and a similar standard for London buses
  • Work with large employers to redirect employees’ personal deliveries to consolidation points instead
  • Consolidation of waste and recycling via Commercial Waste Zones or Business Improvement Districts
  • London Lorry Standard to “simplify the regulatory environment for HGVs operating in London”
  • Opposition to third runway at Heathrow

Proposals to modernise London Lorry Control Scheme given go-ahead

Proposals to revamp the London Lorry Control Scheme (LLCS) have been given the go-ahead by London Councils’ Transport and Environment Committee (TEC).

The LLCS controls the routes that HGVs over 18 tonnes can use at night and at weekends and has been in place since 1985 to help reduce noise pollution in residential areas during the night.

However, the freight sector has long been calling for a review of the 32-year-old scheme to take into account modern, quieter HGV technology and the challenges operators face in delivering during limited hours.

A full-scale review began late last year, with a series of recommendations drawn up to modernise the scheme, which were approved last week (15 June) at a TEC hearing.

These include exploring the development of a noise standard for lorries, special permission for the “quietest fleets” to deliver overnight, and a review of the operational hours and routes (see box below for key recommendations).

London Councils’ TEC chairman Julian Bell said: “The London Lorry Control Scheme has played an important role in reducing the impact of freight movements on the lives of Londoners for over 30 years.

“The review’s findings will help us ensure the freight industry can meet the challenges it faces while continuing to help Londoners get a good nights’ sleep.”

The FTA has welcomed the acceptance of the proposals as a “positive sign” the scheme is to be modernised for the first time in three decades.

Natalie Chapman, head of policy for London, South-East and East of England, acknowledged the “massive amount of work” undertaken by London Councils during the review process.

However, she’d like to see significant proposals, such as route reviews and pilots for amended operational hours, addressed sooner than planned by London Councils.

Major changes to the LLCS would likely need further public consultations and changes to traffic management orders in boroughs.

“It is frustrating, but it is the political reality,” said Chapman. “We will continue to meet quarterly to work with London Councils to make sure all the things in the document do happen.

“Some of it may take a while, but we’re not taking our foot off the gas.”

The RHA criticised the review for failing to address the freight sector’s challenges.

RHA deputy policy director Duncan Buchanan said: “It is not acceptable that the hours of operation of the scheme and the extent of the core network that is available for use have been put in the long grass by this report.

“The report does acknowledge that the freight industry raised concerns about the road network and hours of control, but these issues have been side-lined and no action will be taken on these for at least 18 months – if ever.”

During 2015/16, 4,314 operators and 679 drivers were fined for breaching the LLCS.

Key recommendations of the LLCS review:

  • Raise awareness of the scheme’s purpose, benefits and rules among key stakeholders such as the freight industry, London boroughs, residents’ groups, businesses and international freight organisations. This will involve updating the scheme’s website and online portal, as well as exploring new technologies to make it easier for freight operators to plan and follow compliant routes.
  • Develop “noise standards” for vehicle and infrastructure design that properly reflect how existing and new technologies could improve the operation of the scheme and the restrictions that apply to vehicles.
  • Trial the use of CCTV and Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) enforcement to improve compliance.
  • Reassess the scheme’s restrictions, such as routes, hours of control, the weight limit, traffic signs and vehicle exemptions, particularly in line with the advancements in vehicle design and serving the needs and demands of London’s growing 24/7 economy.
  • Update online systems and processes to improve the day-to-day administration of the scheme.
  • A range of stakeholders, including those representing businesses, London residents, freight operators, London boroughs, Transport for London and the Greater London Authority, have been involved in the review and have helped to identify a number of areas for possible changes and improvements to the scheme.


Haulage industry backs College of Paramedics’ call to reconsider fully segregated cycle lanes

A call from the College of Paramedics to reconsider the introduction of fully segregated cycle lanes in cities has received backing from the haulage industry.

The College of Paramedics has said that kerbed cycle lanes make it much harder for motorists to pull over to one side to allow emergency vehicles to pass.

Richard Webber, a paramedic and spokesman for the college, said every minute that a critically ill patient is delayed from receiving hospital treatment reduces their chance of survival significantly.

Webber said paramedics are reporting increasing delays in city areas with kerbed cycle lanes and called for town planners to re-think the introduction of fully segregated lanes.

“If you are trying to get to an emergency call, particularly at rush hour when the roads are very slow-moving, you’re not able to use your sirens to any effect to get people out of the way because there is nowhere for them to go,” Webber said, adding: “You just end up sitting behind them waiting.”

The College of Paramedics also raised concerns about the design of London’s cycle superhighways, which, it claims, are impeding the flow of emergency vehicles and creating queues of ambulances outside hospitals including The Royal London Hospital, which is a major centre for emergency care.

Cities including Bristol, Edinburgh, London and Manchester have introduced segregated lanes, with similar projects in the pipeline for other towns and cities across the UK.

RHA deputy policy director Duncan Buchanan told Freight in the City: “The college is highlighting a key point. The road is there for all road users and needs to be fit for purpose for all road users.

“If kerbed cycle lanes are preventing vehicles from getting out of the way of emergency vehicles or preventing broken-down vehicles from being pushed out of the way of other road users, then it is clear there is a network design issue.”

The Brewery Logistics Group also called for a review of cycle lane design.

Chairman Mike Bracey said: “I can understand the College of Paramedics’ concern on this issue. Segregated cycle lanes are creating even more traffic congestion and delays in London and elsewhere for all road users. That in turn is creating more emissions, so if the Ultra Low Emission Zone in London is ever going to work they will have to redesign cycle lanes.

“These cycle lanes are mainly used in peak times and empty the rest of the time – so very often you will see a queue of traffic idling next to an empty cycle lane. Something has to be done.”

Last-mile logistics report says ‘free delivery’ mentality must be stopped

A new report commissioned by the Independent Transport Commission (ITC) has found that the general public’s belief that delivery is free is something to be challenged urgently if urban distribution is to remain viable.

ITC director Matthew Niblett said: “People are waking up to the fact that freight produces a large and increasing portion of daily road miles, particularly during the peak hours.

“With online retail delivery volumes increasing by 10% in 2016, we need individuals, businesses and public organisations to break out of the free delivery mindset.”

He added: The government, metro mayors, transport authorities, local authorities and other public bodies need to get on the front-foot to drive change through a combination of actions.

“These include establishing a conducive regulatory framework, interrogating their supply chains, harnessing new technologies, and seed funding consolidation centres until the necessary scale is achieved to allow these to operate independently; all the while encouraging behavioural change from all quarters, including suppliers, customers, the logistics operators and staff employed by public bodies.”

Key challenges cited in the report, How can we improve urban freight distribution in the UK?, include congestion, poor air quality, noise and timing of deliveries, and the last-mile conundrum – all highly emotive factors the haulage industry finds itself both contributing towards and falling victim to.

But what should cities be looking to introduce to tackle them? ITC focuses on three case studies that could help to improve city logistics.


First, it looks at retiming deliveries, with a snapshot of a successful shoulder-hour delivery trial (deliveries outside peak hours but not necessarily overnight) carried out by DHL Supply Chain with one of its retail customers in Camden High Street, North London.

The store used in the two-month trial was located on a busy high street with deliveries only possible to the rear of the building, down narrow streets.

Multiple vans per day had to be deployed, parked up some distance from the store on double yellow lines with  roll cages pushed along the street by the driver.

Residents complained about the noise, PCNs were regularly incurred, and – arguably – far more vehicles were used than necessary to meet the store’s stock demands.

The trial saw deliveries shifted to 8.30pm, outside of peak hours, a time agreed with both the retailer and TfL. Deliveries were rerouted to the front of the shop, which allowed larger trucks to be used, and removed the noise nuisance to the residents at the rear, with special dispensation granted to DHL to allow it to park in a bus lane.

As a result of the trial, significant cost savings were made: 13.4% in road miles (delivery vehicles were halved); 13.1% in drivers’ wages; 3.7% in time efficiency; and 32.9% in PCN avoidance.

The operation is now permanent.

ITC concluded the trial had demonstrated clear benefits to urban policymakers and hauliers, such as improved safety, reduction in congestion and vehicle journeys as well as their resultant emissions.

However it said retiming remains a slow process, with many parties involved to make it a success.

ITC urges players to share their experiences with other businesses and hauliers, with a call to government to find new ways of conveying these messages to the wider industry.

Urban consolidation

A second case study explored the successful model of the London Boroughs Consolidation Centre (LBCC), still in operation today, managed by DHL following a competitive tender in 2015.

By streamlining deliveries to council-owned sites, major supply chain savings were made as well as a reduction in congestion.

The ITC believes urban consolidation centres can offer an important opportunity to reduce freight movements, however the widespread take-up of such models face the challenge of scale and cost.

Local government subsidies are often needed – for example the LBCC still receives around £65,000 from the mayor’s Air Quality Fund – yet with increased volume such models should become self-sustaining.

Procurement is seen as a valuable tool to driving volume, as are local authority incentives or, on the flipside, penalties for non-use.

Alternative modes

You have no doubt seen recent media coverage of autonomous delivery robots scooting around town delivering food and parcels, but are they really a viable player in the last-mile delivery sector or just a gimmick?

Launched by the creators of Skype, the Starship Technologies robots are designed to operate 99% autonomously at pedestrian speed on pavements and deliver goods within 30 minutes.

Congestion on a London street

They can carry up to 10kg of goods and have so far proven 100% tamper-proof, fitted with an array of security sensors, GPS tracking and on-board cameras.

This has been the case over the 35,000km driven in total, of which 5,000km were in the UK and at least four million people encountered one on the streets (as of spring 2017).

With these robots, Starship seeks to address the cost of the last-mile delivery, which is estimated by the ITC to be around £6-£12 (the main cost being the driver’s wage). If the company achieves the scale it desires, then it targets a cost for this last mile of £1 per delivery, around 10% the cost of a human-based operation.

A small corner shop, retailer or restaurant can hire a robot for their deliveries – similar to a lease agreement – place goods inside and dispatch it to the customer, who then enters a secure code from an app to unlock the unit.

This business model is fundamentally different to other autonomous delivery methods on trial, as Starship is selling a service, rather than a product: owning both the model and the liability solves a key issue facing the autonomous sector, according to the ITC.

Starship has also been pushing hard with countries’ governments to develop legislation to help grow this new sector.

In the UK, the company has been in talks with the DfT and the chancellor to secure a regulatory framework for what they call a Personal Delivery Device, with an expansion of its business built on the assurance this would be in place this year.


The ITC pulls together some key messages from its research:

  • Collaborate to succeed – it is clear that the success of urban freight solutions depends on the wide range of parties to work together and make compromises for a common good, as well as cost savings.
  • Behaviour change – at the root of all case studies was the need to change expectations and mindsets of businesses and consumers.
  • Understand the trade-offs – addressing one urban freight issue might negatively affect other objectives.
  • Support innovation – financial and/or regulatory support from policymakers is important.
  • Scale – sufficient scale is often essential to the economic viability of new schemes, such as consolidation centres.
  • Regulatory frameworks – new legislation may be needed for new technology to justify ongoing investment.

The ITC is an independent research charity that focuses on improving policy on UK transport, land use and planning.

Swedish out-of-hours delivery trial removes HGVs from rush-hour

A freight trial in the Swedish city of Stockholm has identified both business and environmental benefits from the use of out-of-hours delivery patterns.

The Off Peak City Distribution trial, led by Sweden’s KTH Royal Institute of Technology, saw two trucks receive an exemption to the current night-time delivery ban in place from 10pm to 6am in Stockholm.

Researchers wanted to see if lifting the ban would drive operational efficiency for hauliers and businesses receiving their goods, as well as congestion-busting and air quality benefits from removing freight vehicles from rush-hour.

The trial

Volvo supplied a parallel hybrid (diesel-electric) FE model fitted with a geofencing device that enabled the truck to switch to quiet, clean electric operation within urban areas.

This was used for dedicated deliveries for supermarket Lidl, travelling 30km between its warehouse in Roserberg and three city centre stores in Stockholm.

A second HGV, a biogas-fuelled Scania R480 (pictured below), was used to transport consolidated goods for Swedish foodservice supplier Martin and Servera to a number of city centre hotels and restaurants.

Both were fitted with noise-reduction equipment, such as silent roll cages, and noise sensor technology.

Anna Pernestål Brenden, a researcher at KTH’s Integrated Transport Research Laboratory, said ordinarily the Lidl warehouse would deploy several fully-loaded trucks to make deliveries during peak morning rush hours between 6am and 8am, because it was too difficult for a single vehicle to make all the drops in such a short time window.

But in the study, a single truck delivered goods to three stores in central Stockholm between the prohibited hours of 10pm and 6am. It would return to the warehouse three times in the night to be reloaded, and then make its subsequent delivery.

Pernestål Brenden said. “That’s one truck doing the work of three, or in other words – morning commuters are spared having to share the road with three heavy duty trucks.”

The truck on the dedicated Lidl route was found to have a driving speed in off-peak around one-third faster than in the morning peak (31%).

Meanwhile, the Scania working to deliver to multiple city centre hotels and restaurants, was found to have a driving speed 59% higher than in the afternoon peak, as the routes could be planned more efficiently as they did not have to factor in congestion.

Enjoy the silence

On the noise pollution front, the trial wanted to examine whether deliveries were a nuisance to residents.
Drivers all had to follow special rules to ensure the quietest of night-time deliveries, such as no reversing alarms and no talking on mobile phones outside the vehicles.

“It turned out that the noise people complained about was caused mainly by unloading the truck, not driving,” Pernestål Brenden said.

KTH acoustics researchers created a sound recording system that placed microphones in the front and back of the truck.

The front microphones would record when the truck was getting unloaded, so that neighbourhood background noise could also be taken into account.

This allowed researchers to evaluate the mix of sound from both vehicle and environment and give a true picture of what difference the unloading of the vehicle actually made.

They found trucks unloading within city centre environments were not noticeable to residents, with only those in one quieter, outer suburb experiencing noise disruption.

Though it was a small scale study, KTH said there was a strong indication that scaling up off-peak deliveries could increase efficiency for businesses, reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions and make a positive impact on traffic volume during peak hours.

Pernestål Brenden said: “By making small changes, we can improve transport efficiency, reduce congestion, and enable new business models for goods receivers.”


London businesses offered deliverBEST tool to make their deliveries more sustainable

A new online tool has been created to help London-based businesses make their deliveries more sustainable.

Cross River Partnership’s (CRP) deliverBEST website asks businesses to complete a quick survey, which then recommends delivery options relevant to their sector and location.

A team of CRP’s business engagement officers are then on hand to provide guidance on how to implement new delivery patterns, help build the business case for change and measure results.

The website is being piloted by CRP partners Better Bankside and Victoria Business Improvement District, with plans to roll this out further across the capital.


Freight vehicle restrictions proposed in Oxford Street transformation vision

Freight vehicles could be removed or time-restricted from London’s Oxford Street, as plans for a major revamp of one of the world’s busiest shopping destinations take shape.

TfL has opened a consultation this week into proposals to make Oxford Street area more pedestrian-friendly and tackle air quality and safety concerns from over-crowding.

This requires a “significant increase in the amount of space provided for pedestrians and a radical reduction in the amount of traffic using Oxford Street,” according to the consultation.

As an established retail and business hub, TfL said it is “extremely important” that businesses based on Oxford Street can receive deliveries and be serviced efficiently.

“At the same time we recognise the importance of ensuring that local residents are protected from excessive noise, pollution and congestion. Any proposals must ensure that freight and servicing vehicles are able to continue to access the Oxford Street district efficiently,” the consultation added.

At present, Oxford Street is open for freight deliveries at any time, with the majority being made between 22.00 and 10.00. Some businesses on Oxford Street already have arrangements in place to make or take deliveries via nearby side roads or to loading facilities at the rear.

Possible changes

However, if the current status quo is maintained, planners say it would “greatly limit” their ability to transform the area.

They say removing access for freight entirely would increase the scope for transformation; however they acknowledge this may have implications for businesses or traffic flow in neighbouring areas.

Restricting freight vehicles during the day-time is another option, with night-time access either to the full length of Oxford Street or to certain sections of it.

This option would give pedestrians more space, however would require businesses to re-time the receiving of their goods.

“We will continue to work with businesses to find new ways of improving the efficiency of deliveries and servicing, while reducing the impact of these journeys on those visiting, living or working in the Oxford Street district,” the consultation document said.

It added that successful consolidation schemes had already reduced freight and servicing journeys in both Regent Street and Bond Street,

If freight vehicles were banned from Oxford Street, planners would consider the potential for designated crossing points to enable vehicles to head north to south and vice versa.


TfL said air quality in Oxford Street is a “serious and pressing” issue, regularly exceeding legal limits, despite a boost in low-emissions buses and taxis and existing freight consolidation and re-timing work.

Road safety is also a “significant concern”, with around 60 collisions a year on Oxford Street resulting in personal injury.

Options for restricting or rerouting buses, taxis and cyclists are also included in the early proposals.

TfL is keen to hear industry views on the project and the consultation will be open until 18 June.


Virtual loading bays aim to reduce PCNs and boost uptake of cleaner freight vehicles

A virtual loading bay that allows operators to pay for a timeslot to load/unload on restricted kerb space is to be trialled in London this summer.

The Kerb Virtual Parking System (VPS) is one of a series of projects aimed at improving the transport, energy and infrastructure of cities as part of Innovate UK’s £19m First of a Kind Deployment competition.

Grid Smarter Cities, which designed the website, said the system will allow drivers to park closely to their delivery point without causing congestion or running the risk of receiving a penalty charge notice (PCN).

Local authorities will decide the fee and which locations are to be used. These can be vehicle- and time-specific to  help nudge behaviour into off-peak periods and to prioritise low-emission vehicles, for example.

This can help local authorities manage poor air quality hotspots, incentivise the use of cleaner delivery vehicles, and improve traffic flow across the borough.

Cost benefits

Grid Smarter Cities added that Kerb VPS will slash costs associated with administering and receiving PCNs for both councils and operators, as well as reduce fuel through more optimised deliveries and better multi-drop planning capability.

Other benefits include bookable rapid chargers in reserved bays and access to previously difficult-to-reach locations.

“There is overwhelming support for such a solution with significant environmental and economic benefits for commercial vehicle operators and local authorities in the adoption of the solution in comparison with the existing regime of PCNs for illegal parking, which is currently ‘stick with no carrot’,” the Innovate UK project proposal stated.

Grid Smarter Cities will be running the trial towards the end of summer, which is anticipated to take place on the TLRN and in Wandsworth, focusing on high-density loading ‘hotspots’.

Deliveries to car boots

Another delivery idea being trialled under the Innovate scheme is the ‘Car as a Delivery Service’ concept for urban last-mile deliveries.

Car Tap uses a smartphone app to enable consumers to have online goods delivered straight to their car boot using secure keyless vehicle access technology.

This system aims to reduce wasted mileage of redeliveries, but also spread deliveries around the clock to lessen the demand on roads during peak times.

A trial will take place to allow 100 customers of Farmaround to receive deliveries of organic boxes.

ITM Power has also received funding from Innovate to convert electricity to hydrogen at a mass scale to make it more affordable as fuel, while Zapinamo will extend its trials of its rapid and mobile charging for electric vehicles.

Transport secretary reveals Lower Thames Crossing route

The chosen route for the Lower Thames Crossing will link the A2 and M25 and generate more than £8bn for the economy, according to transport secretary Chris Grayling.

The new road, which will cost an estimated £4.4bn, will run from the M25 near North Ockendon, cross under the Thames east of Tilbury, and link to the A2 near Shorne.

Grayling said the route chosen for the river crossing was voted for by the majority of 47,000 participants in a public consultation.

The crossing is expected to carry 4.5 million HGVs in it first year, reducing the burden on the congestion-plagued Dartford Crossing.

A further £10m will be spent on improving traffic flow at the Dartford bridge and tunnel.

A DfT spokesman said while the department hopes the road will be open by 2025, it was too soon to say when building work would begin.

He told Freight in the City: “We’re not putting a timescale on it at present because it’s still too early. We’re announcing the location, but the crossing needs more design work and thought on how it will deal with traffic and physically link to the A2.

“Once more of that’s decided and DfT is ready to make its plans public, there will be another public consultation.”

The transport secretary has also earmarked £66m to widen the A13 Stanford-le-Hope bypass from two to three lanes.

This, he said, would create 4,000 new jobs in the area and improve access to the Tilbury and London Gateway ports.

The RHA welcomed the announcement about the new route, but voiced concerns that with rapidly increasing traffic levels, it could be obsolete before it is completed.

Chief executive Richard Burnett said: “The new crossing will have a tremendously positive economic benefit.

“The project will provide thousands of jobs and will give a boost to business across the South East.

“Our main concern is that the anticipated completion date will be 10 years from now. If traffic levels continue to increase at their current levels, the new crossing may be obsolete before it even opens.”

Last-mile autonomous shuttle goes on trial in urban environment

The UK has taken its latest step in developing autonomous last-mile mobility, with the launch  (5 April) of a driverless shuttle trial in an urban environment.

Gateway Project (Greenwich Automated Transport Environment) researchers want to learn how the prototype pod reacts alongside people in a natural environment.

The shuttle will navigate a two-kilometre route around the Greenwich Peninsula, using sensors and autonomy software to detect and avoid obstacles whilst carrying members of the public participating in the study.

It will also explore people’s preconceptions of driverless vehicles and barriers to acceptance through detailed interviews with participants before and after they ride in the shuttle.

Following this passenger-focused trial, the project will explore the potential for driverless pods to carry last-mile urban deliveries.

The Gateway Project is a research programme led by Transport Research Labortatory (TRL) and funded by government and industry. It aims to demonstrate the use of automated vehicles for last-mile mobility, seamlessly connecting existing transport hubs with residential and commercial areas using a zero-emission, low-noise transport system.

Research findings from the project will guide the wider roll out of automated vehicle technology in all forms of surface transport, including cars, lorries and buses.

The prototype shuttle, dubbed ‘Harry’, uses an autonomy software system called Selenium, which enables real-time, robust navigation, planning and perception in dynamic environments.

Whilst the vehicle is designed to operate without a human driver, a safety steward will remain onboard at all times, complying with the UK’s code of practice on automated vehicle testing.

TRL academy director Nick Reed said: “This research is another milestone in the UK’s journey towards driverless vehicles and a vital step towards delivering safer, cleaner and more effective transport in our cities.”